Depending on their capability, members contributed a specific number of mounted knights and foot soldiers, called a contingent, to the league's army. The national aspect of the Peasants' Revolt was also utilised by the Nazis. He wrote, "Three centuries have passed and many a thing has changed; still the Peasant War is not so impossibly far removed from our present struggle, and the opponents who have to be fought are essentially the same. The progress of printing (especially of the Bible) and the expansion of commerce, as well as the spread of renaissance humanism, raised literacy rates, according to Engels. They had professional officers and had cavalry. For example, an SS cavalry division (the 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer) was named after Florian Geyer, a knight who led a peasant unit known as the Black Company. As a result of the Peasants War, existing trends in the Reformation were confirmed and even became entrenched in Lutheranism.  Peasants were more concerned to protect the social, economic and legal gains they had made than about seeking further gains. , The peasant army was governed by a so-called ring, in which peasants gathered in a circle to debate tactics, troop movements, alliances, and the distribution of spoils. The fact that this treatment was worse in the south than in the north was the reason that the war began in the south. , Thomas Müntzer was the most prominent radical reforming preacher who supported the demands of the peasantry, including political and legal rights. In this way, it could be explained as a conservative and traditional effort to recover lost ground. Labor shortages in the last half of the 14th century had allowed peasants to sell their labor for a higher price; food and goods shortages had allowed them to sell their products for a higher price as well.  The clergy who did not follow Luther tended to be the aristocratic clergy, who opposed all change, including any break with the Roman Church.. Luther and Müntzer took every opportunity to attack each other's ideas and actions. Together they marched around the countryside and stormed the castle of the Counts of Schwarzburg. While the famous Twelve Articles of the Swabian peasants were certainly not composed by Müntzer, at least one important supporting document, the Constitutional Draft, may well have originated with him. Log in. Finally, the Twelve Articles demanded an end to arbitrary justice and administration. However, after the Peasant War, Luther became less dogmatic. As the rebellion escalated to violence, Luther took a harsher stance on the peasants, whom he now condemned as robbers and rebels to be killed on sight, as illuminated by the third passage.  While the Württemberg band lost approximately 3,000 peasants (estimates range from 2,000 to 9,000), the League lost no more than 40 soldiers. Historians have tended to categorize it either as an expression of economic problems, or as a theological/political statement against the constraints of feudal society.  Luther has often been sharply criticized for his position. , The Twelve Articles demanded the right for communities to elect and depose clergymen and demanded the utilization of the "great tithe" for public purposes after subtraction of a reasonable pastor's salary.  Within a few weeks most of southwestern Germany was in open revolt. The German Peasants, especially the wealthier groups, wanted to safeguard a hard-earned prosperity that they believed was under threat … They used the wagon fort effectively, a tactic that had been mastered in the Hussite Wars of the previous century. Militarily, the nobles had all the advantages.  The Twelve Articles were printed over 25,000 times in the next two months, and quickly spread throughout Germany, an example of how modernization came to the aid of the rebels. The revolt was put down.  F. Engels cites: "To the call of Luther of rebellion against the Church, two political uprisings responded, first, the one of lower nobility, headed by Franz von Sickingen in 1523, and then, the great peasant's war, in 1525; both were crushed, because, mainly, of the indecisiveness of the party having most interest in the fight, the urban bourgeoisie". During the Knights' Revolt the "knights", the lesser landholders of the Rhineland in western Germany, rose up in rebellion in 1522–1523. There were many reasons for the outbreak. This resulted in the early sixteenth witness an increasing antagonism between the elite and the lower classes. On 15 May joint troops of Landgraf Philipp I of Hesse and George, Duke of Saxony defeated the peasants under Müntzer near Frankenhausen in the County of Schwarzburg. " Engels ascribed the failure of the revolt to its fundamental conservatism.  At odds with other classes in Germany, the lesser nobility was the least disposed to the changes. Social studies. Luther argued that work was the chief duty on earth; the duty of the peasants was farm labor and the duty of the ruling classes was upholding the peace. The Revolt reinforced Luther’s innate conservatism. The conditions which must here be taken into consideration are the following.  Engels held that the Catholic monopoly on higher education was accordingly reduced. This allowed the nobles to defeat the peasant armies that had seized large areas of Germany. Some clergy were supported by the nobility and the rich, while others appealed to the masses.  Using Karl Marx's concept of historical materialism, Engels portrayed the events of 1524–1525 as prefiguring the 1848 Revolution. Each company, in turn, was composed of smaller units of 10 to 12 men, known as rotte. Local rebellions became usual for Central Europe since 1400, including such famous ones as Hussite wars (1420-1434), series of revolts known as the Bundschuh movement (circa 1440-1530), Hungarian peasants revolt (1514) and s number of minor disorders. Two friends take a trip to see important historic places. , In the north of Germany many of the lesser nobles had already been subordinated to secular and ecclesiastical lords. In the southwest of Germany, the rebel's heartland, the nobles formed the Swabian League. He interpreted the uprising's causes as essentially political, and secondarily economic: the assertions by princely landlords of control over the peasantry through new taxes and the modification of old ones, and the creation of servitude backed up by princely law. 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